Temples, Stupas and Sacred Places
In the pre-revolutionary period there were more than 150 Buddhist temples that served the needs of almost every Kalmyk clan and settlement. However, during the anti-religious purges of the 1930s, all of them were destroyed, except for the Khosheutovskiy temple, which survived partly. It was not until 1989 that the first prayer house was opened on Gerasimenko street in Elista following the establishment of a Buddhist community. The first Buddhist temple Geden Sheddup Choikorling (locally known as Sakyusn Sume) was opened in 1996 on the outskirts of Elista, which marked the beginning of a period of active construction of religious buildings across Kalmykia. In 2005 Burkhan Bagshin Altan Sume (known as Central Khurul), the biggest temple not only in Kalmykia but in Europe, was opened in the centre of the capital city. Today Buddhist structures such as temples, prayer houses and stupas can be found in all settlements across Kalmykia. Among them, stupas present an interesting case. Not only are they built in large numbers in villages and around temples, but they also mark the places of destroyed temples and other sacred locations. The construction of stupas is usually initiated by Kalmyk clans (in such cases stupas are built in ancestral places in memory of ancestors) or representatives of Buddhist communities (in memory of famous lamas, legendary rulers, destroyed temples or notable historical events).
In this collection, you can see videos and listen to stories about religious buildings of the past and the present.
About the Bogdakhin Temple
The video features two narrators, Lyudmila Sarangova and Al’mira Erendzhenova who talk about the Bogdakhin temple. Destroyed in 1929, the temple was rebuilt in 1991. It is situated in the village of Khar-Buluk in Tselinnyi rayon of Kalmykia.
Lyudmila Sarangova: The temple was given to the Kalmyks as a present by the Dalai Lama V and the Panchen Lama IV in 1681. In the beginning, the nomadically organized temple, which was housed in a yurt and moved along the banks of the Manych river, was called Bogdo Dalai Lamyn Ik Khurul Rashil Khumbo. Later it was housed in a permanent building. When it was destroyed in 1929 its last abbot was Ochir-Purdash Dzhungruev – also known as Purdash bagsh – who became a gelyung (monastic title) in 1904. He was born in 1856 into the clan of Shabiner. He went on pilgrimage to Tibet twice, in 1898-1900 and in 1902-1904 respectively. In Tibet Purdash bagsh was received by the Dalai Lama V. Purdash bagsh described his pilgrimages in his diaries that were later translated into Russian by the St Petersburg Geographical Society that presented him with a silver medal.
One day during his trip to Tibet, Purdash bagsh was resting under a big tree and decided to take seeds from that tree back to Kalmykia. Upon his arrival home, he sowed the seeds, one of which grew into a tall tree known today as Odinokoe Derevo (Lonely Tree). This tree is more than 100 years old and is regarded as sacred. Children are banned from climbing and playing on it. In 2013 eight Buddhist stupas were erected near the tree. Today it is a site where people perform rituals.
Al’mira Erendzhenova: Before its destruction in 1929, the Bogdakhin Temple was situated in the village of Yarta. Today only parts of its former foundation can be seen there. In 1991 the temple was rebuilt in another village called Khar-Buluk. The temple houses the following relics: a statue of the Panchen Lama IV, a statue of Vajrasattva, the horn of a rhino, a small stupa, old Kalmyk texts about the future, two copies of Dorzh dzhodva (Diamond sutras), a sutra of Okn Tengrin magtal in Tibetan, and a sutra of Khar kelnya sudr in Todo script.
The statue of the Panchen Lama, which is about 380 years old, was restored by specialists at the Central Temple in Elista in 2009. In the beginning, people thought that it was a statue of Bogdo Gegyan, hence it was referred to as such. But later it was established that the statue was actually that of the Panchen Lama. This statue is believed to have magical power. The horn of a rhino, which is about 180 years old, is wrapped in a cloth with inscriptions in Todo script and Tibetan. The cloth is kept inside a bag. The temple also possesses an original photo of Purdash bagsh.