Buddhist Rituals, Holidays and Pilgrimage
In Kalmykia people celebrate three major holidays, including Tsagan Sar, Ur(s) Sar, and Zul, each considered both national (secular) and religious holidays. On these days, Buddhist temples hold large prayer services, and people celebrate both at the temple and at home. Other celebrations that are on the religious calendar are the ritual of inviting Buddha Maitreya, the ritual of circumventing a temple with Ganjur and Danjur texts, the Dalai Lama’s birthday, and others.
Rituals that combine Buddhist and pre-Buddhist beliefs and which are dedicated to ancestors, local spirits and Buddhist deities constitute seasonal rituals of gal tyalgn (fire rituals), gazr us tyaklgn (rituals dedicated to masters of water and land), usn arshan (rituals performed to secure the rain, good harvest, a successful fishing trip, etc.) and several others.
Among Buddhist rituals the construction of sand mandalas and the dance of tsam stand out in terms of elaboration and visual effects. Both are performed by Tibetan monks who come to Kalmykia for these occasions at the invitation of the Central Temple.
Pilgrimage is an inseparable part of Buddhism. In the past the main destination for Kalmyk pilgrims was Tibet, whereas today many go on a pilgrimage not only to distant places such as India, Mongolia and Buryatia, but to nearby locations, including the Mount Bogdo and Khosheutovskiy Temple, both of which are in the neighboring Astrakhan oblast. In recent years trips to listen to the Dalai Lama’s teachings held in Baltic countries are also becoming popular.
A Press Conference with the Dalai Lama, Riga 2017
This video features a press conference given by the Dalai Lama in Riga, Latvia, on 23 September 2017. His Holiness answers questions put forward by the local press and journalists from Kalmykia and Buryatia.
This video features a press conference given by the Dalai Lama in Riga, Latvia, on 23 September 2017. His Holiness answers questions put forward by the local press and journalists from Kalmykia and Buryatia.
A Press Conference with the Dalai Lama, Riga 2017
Andrei Terentev, a prominent Russian historian of Buddhism, talks about Buddhism in the Soviet Union and its revival in today’s Russia.
He is the editor of the journal Buddhism in Russia and the Buddhist publication house Nartang. When he was asked to talk about Buddhism in the post-Soviet period he replied as follows:
It is difficult to start from the post-Soviet period, because it is a continuation of Buddhism that survived in the Soviet Union. Legally speaking, Buddhism existed only in Buryatia. The Kalmyks were not given permission to set up a Buddhist community. After the Second World War, two temples were opened in Buryatia, including the Aginskiy and Ivolginskiy temples. As early as the 1960s Buddhism began to spread in places such as Moscow, Leningrad (today St Petersburg) and the Baltic states where Buddhism had not existed before. There Buddhism was known mainly among intellectuals, some of whom adopted this religion. The most well-known among them was a group run by the Buryat lama Bidii Dandaron who had disciples in all of these places. After the war, there were still some educated lamas left in Buryatia, who had been released from prison. Almost all lamas were repressed in the Soviet period, their number being around 13,000. Those lamas who survived the repression, several hundred of them remained to live in villages, and around 30 lamas managed to return to the temples when they were re-opened. However, it was forbidden to pass religious knowledge. It was only allowed to perform rituals at the temples. Buddhism existed but it could neither replenish itself nor spread its teachings. It became apparent soon that the Buddhist tradition had to be supported before all of the old lamas died. The main idea of the Soviet leadership was politically motivated in that they wanted to present the Soviet Union as a country with free religions. That is why a Buddhist religious school was allowed to open in Mongolia where Buryat lamas were sent to pursue studies.
With the beginning of perestroika these young people took leading roles within the Central Spiritual Board of Buddhists of the USSR. When it became clear that people would no longer be sent to prison, or laid off from their work for their Buddhist belief, attempts to set up Buddhist communities were undertaken in many places, including Kalmykia, Tuva and Moscow, where Buddhism had existed before. In particular, in St Petersburg the local Buddhist community received the temple back that was built by Agvan Dordzhiev in 1915. The revival of Buddhism was quick. Buddhist literature appeared on book shelves and Buddhist centers appeared in many cities and towns of Central Russia where this religion had not been known before. In the traditional Buddhist regions temples were built. In the past 25 years the main temples have been either re-built or restored. The problem was not in building temples but in educating the clergy that had been destroyed in the Soviet period. It is not difficult to erect a building but it requires decades to educate qualified clergy, for a full Buddhist education takes around 20 years. In the past two decades, it was the most talented and dedicated young people who completed the full education. Dozens of young Kalmyks, Buryats and Tuvans set off for India to receive religious education. With the help of his Holiness the Dalai Lama these young people were accepted into Tibetan monasteries, but not all managed to complete their education. Having said this, today there is a new generation of educated lamas in Buryatia and Kalmykia. Apart from traditional regions, in many parts of Russia Buddhist communities sprang up that invited Buddhist teachers and translated key Buddhist texts. Many books have been translated, including the Lamrim Chenmo by Tsongkapa. The Dalai Lama’s visits to Russia in 1991 and 1992 gave impetus to the development of Tibetan Buddhism. After it became impossible for the Dalai Lama to travel to Russia any more, Russian pilgrims started to travel to India, and recently to Riga. In Riga, today we are present at one such teaching by the Dalai Lama.
Andrei Terentev, About Buddhism in Russia
Aysa is a volunteer at the Central Temple in Elista, Kalmykia, and works for the charitable fund Buyn which helps poor families with many children. Aysa participated in the organization of the Dalai Lama’s teachings in Riga by doing paperwork, accompanying the Kalmyk pilgrims to Riga, finding them accommodation and attending to their needs in the city.
It is her first time at the Dalai Lama’s teachings. She expresses her gratitude to the Central Temple in Elista for the opportunity to participate in this event.
Aysa Okonova, About the Dalai Lama’s Teachings in Riga
Bogdo Uul is situated near lake Baskunchak in Akhtubinsky rayon of Astrakhan’ oblast. There are several versions of the legend about the mountain. A version that Badma recounts is what he heard from the Kalmyk writer Sandzhi Kalyaev.
Once upon a time a hero called Geser came to the Kalmyk steppes and stopped at the bottom of Bogdo Uul Mountain. It was forbidden for people to look at the mountain, for those who did so died. By conjuring up fog, Geser covered the mountain with it and safely climbed up to the top from where he could clearly see the palace of an enemy khan. With a huge arrow shot from his bow Geser slashed the palace in two. The destroyed palace turned into the snowy mountain of Elbrus that has two peaks.
Badma Narmaev, A Legend About the Bogdo Uul Mountain
Baira has been to the Dalai Lama’s teachings in Riga twice. She says that these teachings are a joyful event for every Buddhist. Although she did not understand the previous teachings very well, this time she understands them better. She says that people should improve their knowledge of Buddhism and try to practice the teachings on a daily basis.
Baira Armanova, About the Dalai Lama’s Teachings
Baterdene is a volunteer at the charitable fund Buyn based at the Central Temple in Elista, Kalmykia. In Riga, during the Dalai Lama’s teachings, he helped the Kalmyk pilgrims with accommodation and assisted the monks to prepare the Dalai Lama’s throne on the stage. He says that it is important for people to listen to the Dalai Lama’s teachings in order to establish a karmic link with this great teacher.
Baterdene Muchkaev, About the Dalai Lama’s Teachings in Riga
Lama Batyr explains that solka is a practice of the defenders of Dharma aimed at defending the teachings of Buddha so that evil does not influence the hearts of the pious. During this ritual, which is performed at sunset, the deities are offered prayers and food called torma made from dough. The defenders of the Orgakin Temple, of which Batyr is the abbot, are Vajrapani (Ochirvani), Mahakala, Okn Tengr (Palden Lhamo) and others.
Batyr says that Vajrapani, who is a bodhisattva of secret powers and who was one of Buddha’s disciples, is considered to be the defender of all Mongol groups. Avalokiteśvara, another disciple of Buddha who is a bodhisattva of compassion himself, is seen as the defender of Tibet. The Buddha’s third disciple, Manjushri who is a bodhisattva of wisdom, is the defender of China.
In 2005 the Orgakin Temple received a statue of Vajrapani from Nepal.
At the end, Batyr reads a prayer to Mahakala. Usually, he explains, this prayer is read every morning in order to remove obstacles in life.
Batyr Elistaev, A Daily Prayer to Deity Protectors
Lama Batyr explains that a morning practice called sang is connected with the worship of the lineage of Buddhist teachers. It is performed early in the morning and has two aims – to cleanse oneself and offer scents to gods.
In the video Batyr performs a sang ritual. His scent offerings include incenses, consecrated pills, sandalwood resin, and seeds of white mustard that are then set alight. Another ingredient included in the offering is vodka. A more elaborate sang offering, Batyr says, can be done by setting a fire and putting on it the following ingredients: several kinds of seeds, liquid butter, sweets, incenses, and dried cow dung. The recipients of this offering are spiritual protectors. The ritual is accompanied by drums and tsang instruments.
Batyr Elistaev, A Morning Prayer
Lama Batyr says that the ritual of gal tyalgn (fire offering) is performed in spring during the month of the mouse, according to the lunar calendar. During this time, the spirits of ancestors wait for food offerings from the living. During this somber month the Kalmyks do not have weddings or other public celebrations. Representatives of various clans gather together to make a fire offering. Today sacrificial animals are substituted by statues made from dough as well as liquid butter.
Other Buddhist holidays celebrated at the Orgakin Temple are as follows:
Ur Sar (performed in May or June) is a celebration of the birth, enlightenment and death of the Buddha Shakyamuni.
Circumvention of Maitreya (in Kalmyk ‘Myadrin Ergts’) is a holiday dedicated to Maitreya, Buddha of the Future. On this day the statue of a green horse and that of Maitreya are taken out of the temple and the pious go around the temple carrying these statues. Batyr says that in Kalmykia this holiday has been revived with the help of the Head Lama of Buryatia, Ayusheev.
Tsagan Sar is a holiday to celebrate Buddha showing his miracles.
Zul is connected with the lama Tsongkapa, founder of the Gelug school of Buddhism. On this day 1,000 candles are lit and put outside symbolizing the 1,000 Buddhas that would have ever come to earth.
Batyr Elistaev, About Buddhist Holidays
Lama Batyr talks about mandala offerings to Green Tara, a deity that symbolizes emptiness. He says that the mandala (a Buddhist pattern) represents the universe and that Meru Mount is the axis of the world. The borders of the mandala symbolize a chain of iron mountains. There are also an ocean and four continents on this pattern (humans live on the south continent). Offerings to Green Tara is made with rice that symbolizes precious stones. There are two levels of offerings – the inner and outer ones. Afterwards, Batyr reads a mantra.
If an offering is performed correctly, it helps to cleanse negative karma accrued by people from their previous lives and to obtain more merit. Such offerings, Batyr contends, should be performed every morning.
Batyr Elistaev, A Mandala Offering
In 2012 Boris travelled to India with the aim to attend the Dalai Lama’s teachings in Bodh Gaya and visit sacred sites. Following the trip, he started to understand the importance of pilgrimages. Boris also set out working on his imperfections and mind. After a while he noticed some positive improvements in himself. Today he tries to read mantras regularly, meditate and read more literature on Buddhism. He says he follows the Dalai Lama’s advice to work on one’s body, speech and mind.
Boris Shurganov, About the Dalai Lama’s Teachings
This video features a ceremony held at the Central Temple in Elista in May 2016 which was dedicated to a celebration to commemorate the birth, enlightenment and death of the Buddha.
Celebration of the Birth, Enlightenment and Death of the Buddha
The Dalai Lama gave teachings on “Stages of Meditation” and “Concise Lamrim” in Riga, Latvia, from 23 to 25 September 2017. This video shows the first day of the teachings at the Skonto stadium. With the Baltic states and Russia being the target audiences, the teachings were translated into several languages, including Russian.
Dalai Lama in Riga, 2017: Day 1
The Dalai Lama gave teachings on “Stages of Meditation” and “Concise Lamrim” in Riga, Latvia, from 23 to 25 September 2017. This video shows extracts from the second day of the teachings at the Skonto stadium. With the Baltic states and Russia being the target audiences, the teachings were translated into several languages, including Russian.
Dalai Lama in Riga, 2017: Day 2
The Dalai Lama gave teachings on “Stages of Meditation” and “Concise Lamrim” in Riga, Latvia, from 23 to 25 September 2017. This video shows extracts from the third day of the teachings at the Skonto stadium. With the Baltic states and Russia being the target audiences, the teachings were translated into several languages, including Russian.
Dalai Lama in Riga, 2017: Day 3
The Dalai Lama gave teachings on “Stages of Meditation” and “Concise Lamrim” in Riga, Latvia, from 23 to 25 September 2017. This video features preparation works carried out at the Skonto stadium, the venue for the teachings, and the arrival of the Dalai Lama in Riga on 22 September.
Dalai Lama in Riga, 2017: Preparation
Dela is originally from Kalmykia. Today she lives in New Jersey. She works on a project called Blue Book. After moving to the United States, she had the opportunity to attend the Dalai Lama’s teachings and learn more about the philosophy of Buddhism. She also travelled to India. She says that such events give people the opportunity to develop their spirituality.
Dela Leybovich, About the Dalai Lama’s Teachings in Riga
Dmitriy came to Riga from New York, US, where he lives. He says that seeing the Dalai Lama and listening to his teachings feels like a holiday to him.
Dmitriy Nakhaev, About the Dalai Lama’s Teachings in Riga
Ekaterina is a volunteer at the Central Temple in Elista, Kalmykia. She came to Riga to work as a volunteer during the teachings, which is her first experience of participating in such an event. Ekaterina talks about how she and other volunteers met the Dalai Lama. Every person has his/her own path to Buddhism. Ekaterina’s path started when she fell ill, thought about her behavior and life, and came to the Central Temple. She found answers to her questions in Buddhism, which today is an important part of her life.
Ekaterina Molokova, About the Dalai Lama’s Teachings in Riga
Erentsen and Baina are a couple. They came to the Dalai Lama’s teachings in Riga from St Petersburg. Erentsen grew up in the Far East, but went to university in St Petersburg. In 2014 Erentsen and his Kalmyk friends went to Tibet to visit sacred Buddhist sites. Soon he became interested in Buddhism, and decided to go on a pilgrimage to India in 2017 where he met his future wife Baina who was also on a pilgrimage. Erentsen says that, ‘the Dalai Lama is a deity in human flesh’.
Baina came to the Dalai Lama’s teachings in Riga in 2014 and 2016. She also went to India, a country she was dreaming of visiting since her student years. A medical doctor, Baina says that in her profession it is important to try to help others and have compassion. The Dalai Lama’s teachings help her in her work.
Erentsen and Baina Tyurbeevs, About the Dalai Lama’s Teachings
Galina came from Kalmykia to the Dalai Lama’s teachings in Riga. She first attended His Holiness’ teaching in 2006 in India, not having a good understanding of Buddhist philosophy. As a medical doctor, in the past she was more interested in the biological side of the human body, but could not find answers to her questions. Her road to Buddhism was long, and as she deepened her study of Buddhism she was confronted with new questions. The aspect of Buddhism that touched Galina most is the teaching about compassion.
She also says that the light of Dharma will reach the heart of every person on the planet. All people want to be happy, and it is Dharma that can provide it. It is thanks to Telo Tulku Rinpoche (Head Lama of Kalmykia) and the Dalai Lama’s teachings that are organized in different locations that Galina opened new countries for herself. She says that the city of Bodh Gaya in India feels as if it has a special energy and closeness to the teachings of Buddhism.
Galina points out that one’s physical health depends on that person’s spirituality and mind, because many diseases originate from one’s state of mind. People who do good deeds tend to have better health. Many long-livers are religious people. Finally, Galina says that the number of Kalmyk pilgrims is growing by the year.
Galina Ochirova, About the Dalai Lama’s Teachings
This video is shot at the Bogdo Uul Mountain in Astrakhan oblast. The Kalmyk pilgrims perform a ritual for the local spirits, followed by a ceremony of the opening of a statue of Tsagan Aav. The statue has an inscription saying that ‘the Mount Bogdo Uul was a place of worship of Tsagan Aav, who is the Head of the spirits of Earth and locality. This Mount was venerated as a place that cures illnesses, bestows wisdom, faith and bravery on people’.
In the beginning, a group of Kalmyk pilgrims get on a mini bus in Elista, and the next morning they arrive at the mountain site. At the foot of the mountain they put out offerings and light a fire. The lama who came with them starts to read prayers. All the people sit down around the fire, and the lama asks them to pray. The offerings to deities include ‘three white’ and ‘three sweet’ foodstuff. The lama asks not to throw the following items into the fire: sheep fat, pork fat, meat, and plastic. The ritual consists of the following rituals:
1. An offering. A woman sprinkles milk with her right hand three times in order to invite luck and happiness. Flour and butter (referred to as ‘white offerings’) are put on the fire. The pilgrims read prayers to their ancestors, Okn Tengri, Tsagan Aav, Makhakala, Ochir Vani, and other gods. Afterwards, biscuits, sweets, honey, nuts and other offerings are put into the fire. Those who include vodka in their offering, should first sprinkle the vodka in the direction of the mountain, and the rest offer to the fire, while calling out the names of their ancestors and thanking the spirits of land and water.
2. Removing obstacles. The lama asks the pilgrims to think about their misfortunes and other negative things, and then mentally destroy these memories and feelings in the fire. Then the pilgrims stand up and clap their hands after the lama utters special words. This is to chase away all the bad from their lives.
3. Blessing and the consecration of ki morn (‘wind horse’) flags and olkts (colorful tapes representing Kalmyk clans). During this ritual, the pilgrims are asked to make a wish. During the consecration, the pilgrims hold the ki morn flags and olkts in their hands.
Afterwards, incenses are thrown into the fire, and the pilgrims hold their ki morn flags over the fire. The lama continues reading prayers.
After the rituals, the pilgrims walk around the fire three times, while warming up their hands and feeling the blessing coming from their ancestors.
While the pilgrims are performing the ritual, another delegation, consisting of local Russians, Kalmyks and a Mongolian lama, prepare for the ceremony of the opening of the statue of Tsagan Aav. After the pilgrims finish their ritual, they join the ceremony.
Pilgrimage to Bogdo Uul, 2017
In this video a group of pilgrims in Elista sets off to Bogdo Uul Mountain late at night. The next morning the minibus with the pilgrims arrives at the mountain which is situated in Akhtubinskiy rayon of Astrakhan oblast’. Upon their arrival, the pilgrims gather at the foot of the sacred mountain, set a fire and light candles. The lama, who arrived with the pilgrims on the same minibus, reads mantras, while the pilgrims sit around the fire and put offerings – including biscuits, incenses, milk, vodka, rice, sweets, butter, and candies – on the fire. At the end, all the pilgrims stand in a half circle around the fire, raise their right hands and sprinkle rice while uttering 'o-o-o'. Afterwards they leave, then return to the fire and finally go up to the top of the mountain.
Near the mountain is a lake called Baskunchak. According to a legend, once upon a time a cart carrying utensils and children was crossing the lake. A dog was running alongside the cart. Thirsty, the dog drank the salty water and dropped dead on the spot. Afterwards, the dog's head would re-surface in the lake from time to time, each time sending by-passers into terror. Pointing their hands at the head, they would cry out, 'Baskuncha! Baskuncha!' which means 'a dog's head!'
Pilgrimage to Bogdo Uul Mountain, 2016
In this video, a group of Kalmyk pilgrims (both men and women of all ages) sets off on a pilgrimage from Elista to the Khosheutovskiy Temple in the village of Rechnoe, Astrakhan oblast’. The group gets on a minibus at night and the next morning the vehicle arrives at Volga to be transported to the other side of the river by a barge. When the pilgrims arrive at the temple, it is closed. A Kalmyk lama starts to perform a ritual at the entrance to the temple. The pilgrims light candles and give offerings, including water, sweets and incenses. The lama reads prayers to request blessing from Buddhas and ancestors for the sake of the revival of Buddhism. The prayers include the Little Treasure of Guru Rinpoche, a praise to the Buddha Shakyamuni, Green Tara, and Prajnaparamita, a prayer to remove obstacles, and a prayer of longevity. The lama also asks all the pilgrims to pray for all living beings as well as for their close relatives and themselves. After the prayers the pilgrims roll out Buddhist ki morn flags. The lama reads prayers to the spiritual masters of land and water and consecrates the ki morn flags. Then the lama says that the pilgrims can make wishes. The participants tie up their ki morn flags together and then hang them on the walls of the temple. Some flags are also tied to the nearby trees. Then the lama bestows blessings on the pilgrims who then go around the temple. After the ritual, Sanal Molotkov, a guide, tells the pilgrims about the history of the temple. According to him, in 1812 the Kalmyk prince Serebjab Tyumen was invited to St Petersburg to celebrate the victory of Russia in the Napoleonic War. In Russia’s capital the Kalmyk prince was awarded a golden sword and the Order of St George. There the prince saw the Kazan Cathedral and decided to build a similar temple in his native land with columns and a dome. Batur Ubashi Tyumen, the prince’s cousin, helped him to build the Khosheutovskiy Temple. The construction started in 1814 and finished in 1818.
Pilgrimage to the Khosheutovskiy Temple
A ritual of circuiting sacred objects or settlements with Buddhist texts is performed rarely in today’s Kalmykia. In pre-revolutionary times this ritual was performed in all Buddhist monasteries, which housed Buddhist Ganjur and Danjur texts.
This video shows this ritual as it was performed in Khanata village of Maloderbetovskiy rayon. It begins with Dordzhi-Tseren, a senior lama of the Buddhist Union of Kalmykia, telling the participants about the foundation of Buddhism, the Three Jewels of Buddhism, practices, and the Buddhist texts of ‘Ganjur’ and ‘Danjur’. He also stresses the importance of the fact that after 70 years of religious bans in the Soviet period, these Buddhist texts have been brought back to Khanata. Dordzhi-Tseren carries on: ‘Ganjur is a record of 84,000 teachings of Buddha Shakyamuni. Ganjur contains all kinds of instructions, encompassing a wide range of topics from worldly life to philosophical teachings about emptiness and prajnaparamita. Danjur contains teachings and commentaries of other great Buddhist teachers. Even birds and insects that live in this place get blessed from a mere presence of these sacred texts here. Today we are reviving our roots. Therefore, we should revere the Three Jewels, namely Buddha, his teachings and the monastic community. Rejoice from the fact that you have a lama stationed in your village. Some changes, I hear, have taken place since his arrival. Now, when you will carry these texts in your hands you should think as if you are carrying such a precious jewel as you may never do again. All Buddhas and deities, gods and local spirits-protectors rejoice and bless you. With such thoughts you should walk around the village’.
Zungru bagshi continues: ‘It is a great honour to have a senior lama with us today. We should all perform this ritual with dignity. All this would have been impossible without your support. There is a saying that without knowing the past, one cannot see the future. Between the past and the future is the present. Caring for the present, we strengthen the past in the process preserving our history and culture.
In 1856 our fellow countryman, Djidjyatn bagshi from Dundu khurul, set off on a pilgrimage to Tibet, where he had an audience with the Dalai Lama. From Tibet he brought a letter which allowed three other Kalmyk monks, including Baaza bagshi Menkendzhuev, to visit Tibet. In 1893 they brought Ganjur texts with them.
The 1931 anti-religious campaign resulted in the destruction or the loss of all Buddhist texts. However, there is information that some of these texts, including those translated into Oirat, were saved and buried somewhere. Unfortunately, today no one knows the whereabout of these texts. Today we are reviving our sacred places, and this place is protected by deities and Dharma protectors. People will be blessed not only by the presence of these sacred texts, but also by Buddhist deities. I would like to thank all who made donations towards acquiring Ganjur and Danjur, and those who helped transport them here from the Gandan monastery in Mongolia. Now, I would like to invite these individuals and give them presents’.
Zungru bagshi gives out the presents.
Then Sergei Dordzhiev, who assisted in the transportation of the texts, says, ‘Dear compatriots, brothers and sisters of the great Kalmyk nation! We brought you greetings from sunny Buryatia and Kazakhstan. Miraculously, we managed to overcome all obstacles, cross borders and bring these holy texts here. We are as glad and happy as you are! Your land is sacred, your ancestors stopped the advance of the Nazi army. May the blessing be with you and stay in your land. I wish you eternal prosperity!’
Zungru bagshi: ‘I would like to express special thanks to Vladimir Maksimovich Karuev, without whom we would not have been able to bring the texts. He came to me and offered his help. Thank you! Now, we will start the circuiting ritual of the village with the texts. I would like to ask men to come here. We will give a volume to each of you. You should form a queue and proceed in the exact order that you received the texts. After you finish walking around the village we will put the texts back in the same order. If children would like to carry texts, they should do it together in couples so that they do not get tired. If anyone does not get a chance to carry a volume, you can walk next to someone who has it and help them carry it’.
Then the lamas give out the volumes of the texts to men, one by one. Men line up outside the temple to receive texts. Once all the volumes are handed out, the procession starts from the temple which is located outside the village. While walking clockwise around the village, the participants ask for blessing from the deities of the local clan and land. The ritual is accompanied by religious musical instruments including a drum (kenkrg), a trumpet (burya), a kettledrum (tsang), and a shell (dung). In front of the procession a young man holds burning incenses in his hands. Behind him another man carries a flag. The procession stretches for a long distance, and the participants walk through all streets in the village.
After, the procession returns to the temple, and the lamas lay the texts on the table. Then the celebratory prayers begin with reading ‘Itkl’ prayer (Refuge in the Three Jewels) in Kalmyk, ‘Bilgin zyurkn sudr’ (the Heart sutra), ‘Tushityn zun tengr’ (100 divine beings of the Tushita Heaven, dedicated to Lama Tsongkapa), and mantras. The prayers conclude with reading a short text called ‘Buyan zorn orgkh’.
Finally, all participants receive a blessing by touching the texts with their forehead. The ritual ends with a celebratory lunch and a concert.
Ritual of Circuiting the Khanata Village with Sacred Texts
Kalmyks who today live in Bantir village of Astrakhan oblast in the past lived in a village called Dambur that was disbanded after the deportation of Kalmyks in 1943. In 2017 a stupa of Enlightenment was built in that historical place, where people perform rituals.
This video shows a ritual of offering to Buddhas and spiritual masters of land in Bantir village. The ritual begins with the address of the villagers, who participated in the construction of the stupa, to the people present at the ritual.
The ritual begins with prayers read by a Tibetan monk named Jampa, including Gyunchak sumpa (an everyday triple prayer), Kyabdo semked shukso (refuge and bodhicitta prayer), Gaden lkhagyama (a prayer-appeal to Lama Tsongkapa) and texts of offerings to spiritual protectors of locality. Then the lama offers a bowl of vodka to the fierce protectors of Buddhism and local spirits.
Food offerings are put in one container, including three ‘white foodstuffs’ (milk, sour cream, cottage cheese); three ‘sweet foodstuffs’ (candies, biscuits and honey). Then the offerings are thrown into a fire made from logs that were not part of household implements. Since the recipients of the food are spiritual beings, such as ghosts, local spirits and masters of land, there is a belief that more smoke produces more food. That is, the more smoke, the better. If spirits are satisfied with the offerings, it is believed that they stop harming people and livestock by sending illnesses or misfortunes. Instead, they help the livestock, multiply game animals and send rain.
The ritual ends with a prayer to all living beings. Several people stay until the fire goes out by itself, while the rest of the participants go to a concert and lunch.
Ritual of Making Offerings to the Masters and Protectors of Land
It is an old Buddhist rite which combines both Buddhist and shamanic cults of the people of Central Asia, including the Mongols and the Tibetans. According to Mahayana Buddhist tradition, protectors of land (Tib. sa-bdag, Mon. gazrin ezen) are invisible beings that protect places where they dwell. Such protectors also may take the form of snake-like beings (Tib. klu, Mon. luus) that were adopted from Indian mythology. Also, the territory of Kalmykia is believed by Kalmyks to be protected by White Old Man (Tsagan Aav), a deity which was included into the Buddhist pantheon with the advent of this religion among the Kalmyks. Apart from them, there exist a host of deities whose task is to protect the teachings of Buddha in traditionally Buddhist lands. As a rule, such deities have a furious appearance and are depicted as having multiple limbs or heads.
The ritual of making offerings to the protectors of land is aimed at inviting all deities, both those that protect the local land and those who are tasked with defending Buddhism, to the place where the ritual is being performed. The ritual starts with chanting the text of ‘100 divine beings of the Tushita Heaven’, which is followed by offering incense to the deities. For this a fire is set alight, and special substances are thrown into it, including incenses, herbs, three ‘sweet foodstuffs’ (candies, biscuits and honey), three ‘dairy products’ (milk, butter and sour cream), etc. After that, by beating drums the lamas invite the protectors of Buddhism to offer them a special drink (Tib. gser-skyem, Mon. altan undaa) which is accompanied by chanting a special text. Afterwards, the lamas read mantras to increase spiritual merit.
This video features one such ritual performed by the lamas Mergen Bel’teev and Sanal Dzhalaev for the people from the village of Zegista in Tselinnyi rayon of Kalmykia. The villagers asked the lamas to perform this ritual due to accidents that befell their community in March 2018 (one villager was murdered, and two others went missing). According to Kalmyk beliefs, such accidents happen when spiritual protectors are not happy with the activities of the people who live on their land. In order to prevent further accidents, the villagers need to re-establish a good relationship with the supernatural.
Ritual of Offering to the Protectors of Land
This video is shot at a single poplar tree that grows near the village of Khar-Buluk. This place is considered to be sacred and has eight stupas erected around the tree. In the beginning of the video, the lamas prepare a table with offerings, while the lay people go around the tree and the stupas. When Kundeling Tatsak Rinpoche, a guest lama, arrives, all welcome him with white hadag scarfs. The lamas begin to read prayers. After the prayers, the lamas consecrate a spot for a future stupa by sprinkling rice and pouring water. Men and boys dig the earth with a blade one by one. Then both the lamas and the lay people go around the designated spot three times clock-wise while tossing coins into the hole. Afterwards the procession goes around the sacred tree.
A Ritual to Purify Land for the Construction of a Stupa
Telo Tulku: After achieving enlightenment, the Buddha turned the wheel of Dharma and gave his first teaching about four noble truths. This holiday is celebrated on the fourth day of the sixth month, according to the lunar calendar. This is one of the holidays. Another holiday is the day when the Buddha returned to earth from the Raya Tushita to preach. Kalmyk holidays are all related to the religion of Buddhism. We always ask the believers to do positive deeds, to refrain from negative actions such as drinking alcohol. When people hear the word holiday, the first thing that comes to their mind is ‘Let’s celebrate by drinking!’ I always explain to people that this is not a secular holiday, but a spiritual one. Therefore, we must engage in religious or spiritual acts, visit temples, make prostrations, make offerings, recite prayers and scriptures. There are many positive deeds that can be done. So, we encourage this. We have succeeded in decreasing alcoholism in Kalmykia if we compare today to how things were 10 to 15 years ago. We won’t be able to eliminate alcoholism completely, but we will succeed in making religious holidays in which the majority of the population will abstain from drinking.
Baasanjav: Is it OK to use vodka as deezh (libation to gods and ancestors)?
TT: No. I do not recommend this. There are many other things that can be offered, such as juice and food.
B: You mentioned two holidays, ‘Turning the Dharma Wheel’ and the day when Buddha returned to earth. Have these holidays been celebrated traditionally in Kalmykia?
TT: Of course, before the deportation and the revolution, all Buddhist holidays were observed. Among them Zul, Tsagan Sar and Ur Sar were the most popular holidays. These are national holidays.
B: Are the two that you have mentioned (i.e. The turning of the wheel of Dharma and the return of Buddha to earth) considered to be national holidays?
TT: No, they are not, but they are recognised as such.
People say that Zul candles should be made from potatoes or dough. Why should candles be made from potatoes or dough? There is nowhere in the scriptures saying that you have to make the candles from potatoes or dough. In the past, since ordinary people did not have metal containers to make butter candles, they used potatoes as an alternative. They also used dough as an alternative, which almost became a part of the tradition of celebrating Zul. People say to me ‘We have to use potatoes or dough to make candles’. I ask them ‘Why are you making them from potatoes? Explain this to me’, to which they reply ‘Oh, because we do so, it is our tradition’.
We do not have to do things simply because it is a ‘tradition’. There always must be explanations for what we do. If it is simply because of a ‘tradition’, I cannot accept that. In my investigation, my research and my personal analytical observation, it (i.e. making candles from potatoes or dough during Zul celebration) was done in the past because there were no other alternatives. Therefore, people used potatoes and dough.
Today some people say that we have to make offerings with things that look like a sheep. I do not have a proper answer to this. Why? Because I have not come across any Buddhist scriptures that say we have to offer a sacrificial sheep during holidays or that offerings should look like this or that in form.
Telo Tulku Rinpoche, About Buddhist Holidays
Telo Tulku: The Dalai Lama is not able to visit Russia for many reasons and due to many factors. He visited Russia in the past though. Under the current circumstances we are not able to host His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Many people do not understand the reasons, and because of that they tend to be emotional and frustrated without knowing these political matters as to why he is not able to freely visit Russia. We as a Buddhist organisation are listening to people’s emotions, concerns and are also responsible for balancing that situation, balancing that frustration. We have decided to organise teachings for Russian Buddhists in India. This gives them many benefits. They get to see the Dalai Lama, receive his blessings and teachings. Secondly, all the Buddhist holy sites are in India. It gives them an opportunity to go on a pilgrimage while they are in India. I encourage everybody to take this trip and at least once in a lifetime visit these holy sites. Therefore, they should go on a pilgrimage. Thirdly, it is a cultural experience for them: new places, a new country, language and people.
We people in Russia think that we live all poorly and that we are materially backward. Those people who go to India see the material and spiritual situation in India. They come back and change for better, for they realise that they are materially comfortable. But one thing is missing – it is spirituality. India may be a third world country, but people are smiling, laughing. Many children do not have proper clothes, there is no running water, no heating, there are so many things that are missing. Nevertheless, they are happy, they are enjoying life. Despite all these difficulties, pilgrims come back as new people, with a completely different outlook on life in general.
The Khurul (Central Temple in Elista) has been organising teachings and pilgrimages for the past seven years now. In 2009 when we first organised teachings in India there were about 800 people from Russia that came. Over the years the number grew steadily. The last teaching was in December 2016. There was an attendance of 1,100 people, although we were anticipating about 800 people would take this trip.
We provide this service as a charitable, community service. We do everything free of charge. We assist pilgrims in getting their visas and booking air tickets. We assist in all logistics such as transportation, hotels and food arrangements without extra cost. This is our contribution to people.
Baasanjav: Who are the pilgrims? Are they from Kalmykia only?
TT: Not only from Kalmykia, but also from Tuva, Buryatia. There are a lot of people from Russian regions. Initially we mainly targeted traditional Buddhist republics. That was our main goal. But when teachings started, surprisingly, non-traditional Buddhist regions had a higher attendance than Kalmykia, Tuva and Buryatia combined. That was very interesting for us. That is how it has been. This is a clear sign that interest towards Buddhism is growing in Russia. I do not believe that it is a strictly religious interest. But I think they are interested in Buddhist philosophy or simply the Buddhist way of life, Buddhist science and psychology. I do not consider everyone as Buddhist.
B: When you organise these tours, do pilgrims have an opportunity to meet the Dalai Lama?
TT: Of course, during the teachings they are all sitting right in front of the Dalai Lama. These teachings are exclusively for people who come from Russia. After the last session the Dalai Lama likes to take group photos. That has been very popular among the pilgrims. So, a lot of pilgrims get to meet the Dalai Lama.
B: On average how much does it cost to go to Dharamsala? Does it depend on where you are flying from?
TT: Yes, it does depend on where people are flying from. For people from Buryatia the travel distance is much longer. From Tuva it is long too. For people from Kalmykia, Moscow or Saint Petersburg, it is much easier. Sometimes flying from Ulan-Ude (capital of Buryatia) to Moscow can be more expensive that flying Moscow-Deli-Moscow. It all varies. I cannot tell you the average cost.
B: As a rule, are you taking your pilgrims to Moscow first and from Moscow you all fly to India?
TT: Yes. There are a lot of people who travel independently. We provide assistance to people who need it. There are many people who do not need help. We handle about 400-500 people – that is full service. As for the rest of people, we handle their teachings, hotel arrangements. These are issues we deal with.
B: Where are the holy sites? In which parts of India?
TT: Dharamsala is the residence of the Dalai Lama. It is where he resides, in northern India. Our teachings took place in Dharamsala in 2009, 2010, 2011 – three consecutive years. After that we shifted teachings to Deli. From 2012 our teachings take place in Deli. In India the pilgrimage sites are in Bodh Gaya, it is in the state of Bihar. In Bodh Gaya, there are many Buddhist sites. They are also in Varanasi: the Ganges River and the Dalai Lama Stupa. There are some other sites in Varanasi. Some people cross into Nepal, where the birthplace of the Buddha – Lumbini is.
B: Do Russians need a visa to go to Nepal?
TT: Yes, but not necessarily in advance. One can get a visa on arrival, on the border. It is simple.
B: In Kalmykia there are places of pilgrimage too, for example Khosheutovskiy Khurul and Bogdo Uul mountain.
TT: Surprisingly, in 25 years that I have been in Kalmykia I have not been to Bogdo Uul. I only heard of it. I asked many people. They say it is a sacred mountain. I want to know what makes it sacred. To my question nobody has given me a valid explanation. In my understanding, it is sacred because of its colour: it is reddish in colour and there is no such hill or mountain around that area. That is the only explanation that people have given me. That has not convinced me yet to pay a visit to Bogdo Uul mountain.
Khosheutovskiy Khurul was one of the biggest monastic institutions. It once flourished, later it was destroyed, but not completely. It is the only monastery that has its structure remaining. Of course, it is a place of great reverence and a holy place for all of us. It is our heritage, part of our culture, identity and history. That is a place of importance. I have been there few times.
B: Are there other holy places in Kalmykia? I know that there is Odinokiy Topol (A Single Poplar Tree) where people go.
TT: Yes, people go there. I think that now, anywhere where there is a stupa or a temple, I consider it as a holy place, a place of pilgrimage.
Telo Tulku Rinpoche, About Pilgrimage to Holy Places
The teachings of His Holiness the Dalai Lama were held in Riga for the 3rd time. What happened was that in 2012 His Holiness the Dalai Lama paid a visit to the Baltic republics and at that time there were some Buddhists from Russia who went to see him and there was a separate audience for the Russian Buddhists. During that time there was a Russian lady who asked His Holiness to come to the Baltic republics more frequently, because many people in Russia could not afford to go to teachings in India and in other European countries and I guess the way she requested this to His Holiness was so emotional and touching that His Holiness compelled that it was necessary to come to one of the Baltic republics more frequently and to give teachings. So, after the audience for the Russian Buddhists the Dalai Lama instructed the representative in London and the representative in Moscow to see if there is a possibility to arrange teachings for Russian Buddhists in one of the Baltic republics. At that time Mr Navang Rabgyal, who was the representative of the Dalai Lama in Russia, Mongolia and CIS countries returned to Russia and he called me and asked me if we would be interested in organising teachings in Riga or maybe in one of the Baltic republics. The reason that they asked us if we would be interested is because we already had experience of organising teachings for Russian Buddhists in India. So, we discussed it and decided that we would like to do it. We decided to do it in Riga only because we had good friends who were willing to take up the responsibility to organise the event in Riga. So, in 2014 we held the first teachings, in 2015 it did not happen, then in 2016 it was held, and again this year, 2017. So, three times we have done it in Riga. The main purpose of it is that for the past 6-7 years we have been organising these teachings for Russian Buddhists in India. For many people from Russia to go to India can be very costly, can be expensive, so it is more economical for our people to go to Riga, which is much closer. In terms of travel it is much easier. That was the main reason of doing it in Riga. It has been very successful from the very beginning. Successful in a sense that many people come from Russia. We don’t do this for profit. We make it as affordable as possible. Ticket costs only cover the expenses of renting the hall, offering lunch to the public and other organisational moments such as logistics, hotel expenses for the entourage members, organisers and so on.
The main purpose is for people to have an opportunity to see His Holiness, to receive his blessings, to be in his presence and to gain as much knowledge as they can from His Holiness the Dalai Lama and to absorb the wisdom that he shares with us all. I think for many years we have been hoping that the Dalai Lama would be able to visit Russia. Due to many political and other various reasons His Holiness is not able to visit Russia at the moment, but nevertheless we can go and see His Holiness in some neighbouring countries or maybe as far as India, which many people have been doing in the past. But this event in Riga is one of the biggest events for the Russian Buddhists for the past few years.
About teachings in 2017. I think everything went well. Of course, many people ask me ‘How do I think the event went?’ I usually tell the people that this is a question we should ask the public, the people who attended the teachings. If they feel happy, satisfied, then, of course, we also feel satisfied. We organise these teachings for the people, for the public and we try to make it as comfortable, as enjoyable for all of them to have a good experience. In this case, at least to those people that I have talked to everybody has given very positive responses and I am sure you have talked to many people as well. I think the overall experience has been wonderful for everybody. This is not the last time that we are doing it. Of course, we will do this again in the future. The hall itself has a capacity of 4,000 people. There was about 3,900 people, if you include the volunteers, the people who were working backstage, altogether it is about 4,000 people. There is no way for us to say from which city or region they came from. Everybody buys their tickets online. Online ticketing service cannot define whether they are from Moscow, Buryatia, Tuva or from any other place. But from Kalmykia which I am also responsible for, we formed groups and we helped people who were interested in going. So, the group that the Khurul organised was about 695 people. Also, there were many Kalmyks who went on their own from Moscow, Saint-Petersburg and other places. I would say there were probably over 700 Kalmyks that have participated. But officially through the Khurul there were 695 people that came.
Telo Tulku Rinpoche, About the Dalai Lama’s Teachings in Riga, 2017
This video features the arrival of the Dalai Lama at his hotel in Riga, Latvia, for his teachings on ‘Stages of Meditation’ and ‘Concise Lamrim’ that he gave from 23 to 25 September 2017 at the Skonto stadium. At the entrance to a hotel he is greeted by Kalmyk pilgrims.
The Arrival of the Dalai Lama in Riga
This video features a ritual that was performed by Kalmyk lamas for local deities, Buddhas and the Dalai Lama on the eve of the Dalai Lama’s teachings in Riga, Latvia, on 23-25 September 2017.
The Ritual of Offering to Local Deities, Buddhas and the Dalai Lama
The tsam dance in this video was performed in celebration of the 10th anniversary of the establishment of the Central Temple in Elista. Since 1917 tsam was performed only twice in Kalmykia, and this video captures one such rare occasion. The tsam dancers are Tibetan monks from the Dzongkar Choede Monastery in India. The ceremony is opened by the Head Lama of Kalmykia, Telo Tulku Rinpoche. The head of the Republic of Kalmykia, Alexey Orlov, a Kalmyk MP in Russian Duma, Marina Mukabenova, and the abbot of the Dzongkar Choede Monastery, Tubden Tsering, also gave celebratory speeches.
Telo Tulku Rinpoche: On the invitation of the Central Temple 28 monks from the Dzongkar Choede Monastery arrived in Kalmykia to perform this ceremony. This ritual is not a mere theatrical performance but a religious ritual. Today many people have gathered here, and I wish you all to live in peace and understanding. We have guests here today who are scholars in Buddhism. We are celebrating this anniversary with pride. Today the Central Temple is the biggest temple in Europe. We know that thanks to the Temple we can improve our knowledge of Buddhism. Our Temple carries out educational work among the laity. Today among our guests are people from other Buddhist republics, such as Buryatia and Tuva. We can be beneficial to each other and exchange our experiences. Today I would like to thank all people of Kalmykia from the bottom of my heart for your faith and support. Thank you very much. I want again to thank the head of Kalmykia, Alexey Orlov, as well as the previous head of Kalmykia, Kirsan Ilyumzhinov. My gratitude also goes towards our sponsors and volunteers who help the Central Temple. I wish all happiness, health, peace, and prosperity. I will always pray for all of you.
Alexey Orlov: I would like to congratulate all the guests and people who are present here for the anniversary of the Central Temple. 11 years ago the Dalai Lama consecrated this land for the construction of a temple.The Temple was built within a year. The Temple has become a scientific center and a center for the unity of religions. In this building people can learn about Buddhism. Our people have suffered a lot. Our people managed to keep their ethnic identity, which is what our Buddhist teachers teach us. The ceremony of tsam reflects the historical uniqueness of the Kalmyk people. I hope that this celebration will serve as an incarnation of unity, and cultural and religious values.
Marina Mukabenova: I congratulate you on the anniversary. The Central Temple organizes free Kalmyk language courses. Thanks to our Rinpoche our pilgrims go to India for the Dalai Lama's teachings. The Temple also carries out work to strengthen inter-religious harmony. We are proud that our Head Lama has been appointed permanent representative of the Dalai Lama XIV in Russia and in the countries of CIS. Rinpoche and the workers of the Temple, please accept the words of my deep gratitude for your work and for your wish to help all living beings.
Tubden Tsering: On behalf of all the monks of the Dzongkar Choede Monastery I would like to greet all the people present here, the head of Kalmykia and all the guests. I would like to briefly tell you about the history of our monastery and the ceremony of tsam. The monastery initially belonged to the Sakya school of Buddhism. It was built in 1277. In 1651 the Dalai Lama V, seeing a great demand, changed the monastery from the tradition of Sakya to that of Gelug. (Following China’s annexation of Tibet) representative of the monastery fled to Nepal, and from there the monastery was re-built in the south of India in 1972. Traditionally, the monastery performed tantric rituals and practices. On the instructions of the Dalai Lama XIV, the monastery began to teach higher philosophy of Buddhism to its monks.
Now about the origin of the tradition of ritual dances. In 1490 a great yoga practitioner Chopel Sangpo saw the face of deity Yamantaka. In accordance with this vision, the yoga practitioner established a tradition of religious dances called tsam. At that time our monastery was situated in a borderland between India and Nepal. This region was rife with conflicts. In order to eradicate these border conflicts, as well as hunger, draught, illnesses and other obstacles, tsam dances came to be performed on the 29th day of the 12th month according to the lunar calendar. This dance ceremony is performed together with a ritual to ‘erect the iron palace of Torgyak’. Today the monks will perform this dance to remove obstacles and for peace in the world and for prosperity in Kalmykia. I would like to remind you all that this is not a show but a religious ceremony. It would be good if all people here create a good motivation together with us. On behalf of the monastery I would like to offer hadag scarfs to the Head of Kalmykia and the Head Lama of Kalmykia as well. I would also like to wish prosperity in Russia and health to both Kalmyk and Tibetan peoples.
The ritual shown in this video was performed in a sacred place with a single poplar tree which is situated near the village of Khar-Buluk. In the beginning of the video, the Head Lama of Kalmykia, Telo Tulku Rinpoche, welcomes all who are present. He tells the people the following:
'A ritual of gazr tyaklgn (worship of land) has already been performed twice in this sacred place. The single poplar tree here is more than a hundred years old. There is also a spring nearby which has medicinal water. For many years people have been praying and performing rituals near this tree. There are eight stupas erected in this place. In this special place, we decided to perform the ritual of gal tyaklgn during the month of Ur Sar in May. This ritual consists of offering scents to all deities and defenders of Buddhism. Prayers that will be read include a prayer of refuge and calling of all deities to this place. During these prayers it is important that all visualize that deities are indeed present here among us and ask these deities for blessings. Mentally, all can ask these deities that they bless this land as well. All people present here should think that they came here to accumulate merit. The ritual will be followed by a concert and Kalmyk food (including milk tea and biscuits). This year the Central Temple in Elista has done a lot of activities, including competitions in Kalmyk language and Buddhist philosophy, a campaign called Tsagan Sedkl (White Soul) that helped 55 families in financial difficulty. During Ur Sar, many people take a vow to abstain from alcohol. The taking of such vows started four years ago. In the first year 40 people took this vow. The number of people taking this vow has been growing from year to year and this year it stands at 120. We need to pray for our future and thank our older generation. Before the start of the ritual, people should create inside themselves the right motivation and pure thoughts. All know the mantra 'Om mani padme khum'. Please read this mantra as often as you can and visualize Buddhas and bodhisattvas'.
Afterwards the head of the Tselinnyi rayon and that of the village of Khar-Buluk congratulate the people on the ritual. The lamas chant prayers. Then a fire is set alight and food offerings are put on it. All people utter well wishes. After the ritual, a concert begins where people sing, dance and enjoy Kalmyk tea and biscuits.